The renaissance is widely known as a period that marked the transition from middle ages to modernity as well as spanning 1th and 16th centuries. Contemporary believe that Renaissance was a break from the norm as opposed to most Historians who emphasize more on its medieval facets and believe it was simply an extension of the Middle ages. The Renaissance was a consequence of a number of countless disasters that struck Europe including the great famine of 1315, Mongol invasions, the Black Death, the collapse of Italian Banking houses financially, the rising costs as well as the raging effects of widespread large scale warfare. It is argued that the Renaissance replaced medieval civilization. This paper presents the several issues that Renaissance was a reaction to.
With the aid of Latin and Greek classics, humanist then transitioned to educators at the time focusing on science, literature, politics, religion and arts. The renaissance period brought with it ambition and challenge and collectively brought together those who were critical thinkers and available socially to participate it its practices. Some of the present day innovators including Galileo, Leonardo da Vinci and Erasmus were bred during the period. It is a period in which the European economy had entered into a vicious circle where hunger and chronic diseases had devastated the productivity of laborers such that production of grain could no longer match the demand as a result food prices increased. Living standards also dilapidated and Europeans began experiencing catastrophic health problems. The typhoid epidemic emerged for instance it killed many in densely populated areas. The 1318 pestilence that targeted animals also reduced the much needed food supply and income to the poor this among the following issues caused a crisis that Renaissance reacted to.
One major aspect that Renaissance reacted to was the bubonic plague otherwise known as the Black Death that shattered half Europe’s population. The plague spread fast with the only option being going back to the country which again could only be afforded by the wealthy. Decrease in population lead to major economic depressions, there was hardly any market for merchant products as well as labor to produce. As the plague faded, populations began to increase creating both labor and market for products as such it created a rebirth of the economy.
There was the popular revolt which were not common prior to the 14th century. In the 14th and 15th century this changed when pressure on the poor lead to mass migration and popular uprisings across Europe. In Germany, there were over 60 phases of military unrest between 1336 and 1525.
There was also the missionary mandate which spread across Mongol-dominated Asia where in 1307 the bishop had a seat. The opening of Eurasia by Mongol relocated Europe within the minds of its inhabitants. This led to enhanced skills and techniques in marine engineering as well as navigation helping Europe in crossing and mapping the local seas as well as the west African coast, pacific and Atlantic. It marked the rebirth of European exports to arears that were previously unknown. After the unification of the Roman Catholic Church was devastated by Western Schism, The Roman Empire began declining mostly after the Great Interregnum, it lost togetherness the distinct German states dynasties become politically important than their mutual empire.
Another item is the great famine and changes in climate. As Europe moved away from the Medieval period which was somehow warm to a little ice age, there was significant drop in temperatures and a number of distressing floods that affected harvest and resulted in widespread famine. The rain and cold was specifically ravaging from 1315 to 1317 where the bad weather conditions disrupted several grains and flooding turning the fields rocky. The scarcity of grain and huge demand led to price fluctuations in Europe. The Famine worsened with the prevalence of HYW at the time, leading to many deaths.
The nature of the war greatly changed during the HYW at a time when many no-longer considered war as fashionable or adventurous where medieval Supremes could get an opportunity to showcase their gallantry and bravery. Military units changed from the previous mercenaries to professionals with wages, inspections and designate camps. The changes in the economic and political situation impacted on the evolution of government, despite the expansion of the humanist movement agitated by emerging conceptions of patriotism, citizenship and civic history. The fading abilities of the papacy and the empire to dominate Italian affairs as was the case previously freed each state to pursue individual affair under the constraints of its resources.
Such goals were ideally power and security of each state as opposed to the interests of neighbors. Diplomacy changed to a skilled game for the experts, rivalries became catastrophic and warfare was a common endemic. Given that the costs from the war were consuming, specifically given that mercenary troops replaced the common citizen based militias, states had to now fined newer revenue sources and come up with ways of securing public credit.
Renaissance was a reaction to key individual, national and regional problems. A number of these issues directly affected the economy and the livelihood of citizens, from the plague to the never ending wars to the changes in climate, it affected the quality of live and human survival. Based on the popular revolts, there was certainly a need for a new way of doing things, a way that would give hope to the people and set a foundation for growth of the economy. It a period that marked an end to previous archaic ways of fancying warfare and taking pride in military conquests to valuing individual country interests. It also marked an era where Banking was valued especially credit services given its contributions to economies.