Unix

What you need to know about Linux Operating system

Linux operating system has three main components namely the Kernel, the system library, and lastly System Libraries.

Kernel which is the central part of Linux. It performs all main activities of Linux operating system and consists of several modules, it also directly interacts with underlying hardware. Furthermore, this component offers the abstraction needed to hide low-level hardware configurations to application programs or the system. The other component is the system library which are special programs or functions which system utilities or application programs use to access kernel’s features. System libraries also implement operating system functionalities and hence do not require access rights by the kernel’s module code. The last component is the system utility which is responsible for handling specialized personal level tasks.

Mechanisms available to secure a computer system

Security by correctness

The presumption is that if software products that have no vulnerabilities can be produced, then there will be no security challenges at all. Various efforts have been focused on this in the field of computer science for developing both Windows and Linux based applications. The challenge is that these approaches are not certain as chances of bugs being left out are still high.

Security by isolation

Due to challenges of satisfactorily implementing security by correctness, security by isolation was developed. It basically bases on splitting a computer system into modules and ensure that each module is separate from the other, such that if one is compromised, then it does not affect the other system modules.

Security by Obscurity

This is based on the presumption that all bugs cannot be removed from an application, but at least it could me made difficult to exploit such bugs. It basically about making the system very hard to penetrate or compromise.

Common five popular distributions

  1. Linux Mint: this is common due to its excellent desktop interface, Cinnamon that reminds users of the classic GNOME 2.x interface. It also provides an exemplary support for hardware and software.
  2. Ubuntu: It has a nice Unity interface that is awesome to new Linux operating system users. It does not also require extra integration patching.
  3. Mageia: This is popular because it is easy to use and straightforward. It adopts a pro friendly KDE desktop environment.
  4. Debian: This distribution is very popular because it is very stable and its foundation is based on long development cycles as well as a conservative dimension to application patches. Debian also has an excellent integration of packages. The fact that the distribution is packaged by a group that is coherent, makes all packages available in a single site, and all complicated dependencies issues are already solved.
  5. Fedora: This is quite popular due to its modularity and flexibility and has a linked data support repository as well. Fedora also implements security features including mandatory access controls making the distribution very secure.

Ubuntu Distribution

To Change the directory or folder

To change directories or folders, one uses the cd command. Every time a terminal opens, it will directly lead to the Home directory, to navigate around the file system one then uses the cd command.

Check disk file system

To check the filesystem in GNOME shell, one uses the command df –T which prints out the filesystem types.

Manage the printer

To manage printers, the sudo lpstats command will lead a user to the printer management terminal. To view respective printer configurations, the sudo cat/etc/cups/printers.conf command will be helpful. Furthermore, the lpstat command with the –d option will show a user which is the default printer. To view a printer operational status the lpstat command and the -s option are used.

Stop a process

Several approaches highlighted below can be used to stop a process in Ubuntu.

kill $(pgrep PID)

killall -v PID

pkill PID

kill `ps -ef | grep PID | grep -v grep | awk ‘{print $2}’`

PID in this case has been used to denote process ID

Partition and format a disk

To format an entire disk, Ubuntu uses the fdisk/dev/sdc command

To format and create a new primary partition on a new drive you use

Fdisk/dev/sdc/n/p/w.

In this case n represents new partition, p represents primary partition and w saves the new partition table.

The mkfs –t ext4 /dev /sdc can also be used to format existing partitions where ext4 represents the file system.

Manage user accounts

To add a user you use the command

Sudo adduser username

To delete a user you use the command

Sudo deluser username

Managing and administering an environment with different operating systems.

First, various operating systems provide various capabilities. To achieve optimum benefits it might be advisable to use combine operating systems such as achieving security as well as ease of use for system users. To undertake this it might be a challenge finding applications that would be compatible with the hybrid platform, it may also be necessary t have administrators who are familiar with a range of operating systems.